Anatomy of a badminton racket

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Badminton is a recreation of pace, talent, and method. With record shuttlecock speeds reaching over 330 km/h, badminton is frequently claimed as “the fa stest racket sport in the international ” [ 1]. By using assessment, the quickest tennis serve recorded is 246 km/h. The precise origins of the game are unknown; early kinds of badminton have been performed in historical china, england, poland, and india [2]. The modern regulations of the game are tailored from a model of the sport played in 1860s england, where the game first have become called badminton. Because then, badminton has become a “foremost game in maximum nations of northern europe and southeast asia” [3]. The recognition of the game has additionally expanded worldwide. The worldwide badminton federation (now badminton international federation), founded with the aid of 9 member nations in 1934, has grown to over a hundred and seventy member international locations. In 1992, badminton made its debut into the olympic video games, which has been dominated via gamers from china, indonesia, malaysia, south korea, and denmark. The badminton racket has additionally superior over the years. The primary rackets have been made with wooden frames [3]. Within the 1950s, metal and fibreglass started to update wood. Finally, these substances had been replaced with aluminium, carbon, graphite, and boron. These advances in substances have brought about stronger, stiffer, lighter rackets that could aid better string tensions, ensuing in even faster recreation play. No matter these advancements, the hyperlink between the design and overall performance of the racket remains a thriller. Present day racket designs have in large part been evolved the usage of heuristic methods, relying on participant intuition and producer enjoy, and racket overall performance is sooner or later assessed through player feedback. The badminton racket suffers from a excessive lack of studies, in contrast to other sports activities device like tennis rackets [4-10], golf golf equipment [11, 12], or baseball bats [13-15]. At the same time as racket sports activities all share some similarities, the differences among badminton and tennis are big enough to warrant racket design have a look at unique to the game of badminton. The very first scientific investigation into the badminton racket became sponsored by using active sportswear, proprietor of the danish badminton emblem, fz forza. The desires of the research mission, launched in june 2007, had been to build a better understanding of the interaction between player and racket by using analyzing the dynamic behaviour of the racket throughout a stroke. With an analytical method, badminton rackets can perhaps be designed more effectively and successfully. Via organising a higher expertise of the relationship between the design of a racket and the way it plays, the residences of a racket may be properly tuned which will achieve the favored reaction. This could additionally help explain why distinct players like different rackets. The performance requirements of a badminton racket are often described in phrases of electricity and control. Power refers to the capacity of the racket to impart pace to the shuttlecock at impact. Manage is a me asure of the racket’s manoeuvrability, the potential to direct the shuttlecock precisely where preferred. As these qualities are based mostly on belief, it’s far important to assign a few measurable portions to these attributes, so one can carry out a scientific observe. For the purposes of this look at, these performance traits are simplified into the following definitions. The racket’s “energy” may be measured by means of the momentum transferred to the shuttlecock at impact, or greater truely, the shuttlecock exit velocity. The “manipulate” of the racket can be loosely related to the consistency of the stroke, e.G. A measure of variation within the racket velocity. The badminton racket consists of numerous parts: butt cap, cope with, top cap, shaft, heart (or throat), body (or head), and string mattress (labelled in determine 1). The crucial attributes of the racket can be divided into important classes: mass properties and stiffness residences. The racket is frequently characterized by means of manufacturers in phrases of stability and flexibility. Stability refers back to the centre of mass vicinity, measured from the butt stop of the racket. Flexibility is a much less particular measure, generally given as a rating from 1 (very flexible) to 5 (very stiff). At the same time as these provide a few facts approximately the mass and stiffness residences of the racket to the purchaser, there may be greater useful measures to symbolize the racket. As an example, numerous studies have proven that swing speed is most highly correlated with the instant of inertia (moi) , or “swingweight”, of the carrying put in force [8-10, 13-15]. This shows that the racket’s moi is the figuring out issue in how speedy the racket may be swung, as opposed to the entire mass of the racket. To take a look at the dynamic behaviour, the motion of the racket in the course of the stroke can be measured the usage of motion capture. Movement seize is a way used to digitally record movement in 3-D area. The motion seize device involves numerous infrared cameras that select up the movement of reflective markers located on the object of hobby. Thru triangulation techniques, the motion seize software program is able to reconstruct the movement of markers in 3-D if the marker is visible with the aid of at the least two cameras throughout the motion. A movement capture system (oqus, qualisys ab, gothenburg, sweden) of 8 cameras became used to document ten trials of a break stroke completed by using a sophisticated player at the most price of 500 frames in line with 2nd (fps). 8 10 mm spherical markers had been placed on the racket, 5 on the manage and three on the pinnacle, illustrated in figure 2. Considering that motion seize measures handiest positions without delay, velocities and accelerations are received by way of differentiating the position facts with recognize to time. Role records of the markers were exceeded through a 0-segment, 2nd-order, low- pass butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency of 60 hz and finally equipped with a 6th order b-spline with the everybody modelling machine (all and sundry generation, aalborg, denmark) to enable calculations of derivatives of measured marker trajectories. The marker trajectories have been then used to determine 3D rigid body kinematics of the racket via (a) preferred kinematic evaluation and (b) an optimisation-based kinematic evaluation, to be had within the everyone modelling machine [16]. The flexible racket was modelled as inflexible-body segments, the deal with h and the body f , linked by way of a frequent joint, j , positioned at the base of the shaft, in which rotation is about the y -axis and z -axis (discern 3). This creates a mechanical system with a complete of 8 rigid-frame levels-of-freedom (dof) towards the 24 coordinates measured through the 8 markers. The resulting kinematic over-determinacy is tricky in fashionable kinematic analysis. Consequently, simplest three take care of markers ( p1 , p2 , and p4 ) have been used to outline the body and determine the kinematics of the take care of. These markers have been selected due to the fact they were seen most reliably with the aid of the cameras. Markers p2 and p4 described the y -axis, and the x -axis is fashioned via p1 and the midpoint between p2 and p4 . Markers p6 and p8 were used to define the frame section. Angular velocities and accelerations had been determined by means of vital finite difference. In the optimisation-based totally method, the kinematic over-determinacy may be used to lessen the dimension mistakes. Kinematic records for all markers were used to reduce the space among the measured and modelled marker function to enhance positioning of the racket segments. Info of this method may be determined in andersen et al . [16]. For the reason that racket energy is defined right here as the momentum transferred to the shuttlecock at impact, figuring out the momentum of the racket simply earlier than impact is essential to assessing racket electricity. Numerous factors contribute to racket momentum, which includes the speed of the impact area on the racket head. This speed may be determined the use of easy kinematic calculations. . The speed of any factor p alongside the racket frame can be expressed as.

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